Small spiral mixer
Mod. MIXER BABY
Spiral mixer at fixed bowl
Light spiral mixer at fixed bowl for soft dough
Strong spiral mixer at fixed bowl for hard dough
Spiral mixer at fixed bowl with lifter
Mod. MIXER RB/RD
Spiral mixer at removable bowl
Mod. MIXER E
Fork mixer at idle bowl
The first purpose of this operation is to create gluten: after the hydration of the flour, with mixing you get an elastic and mouldable mass. Combining wheat protein, gliadin and glutenin. After combining in the gluten, these molecules stretch and orient themselves. The gluten arranges itself to create a tidy mesh threaded between the starch granules. Air bubbles get trapped by this netting, which will be fed by the carbon dioxide produced through fermentation. The netting’s elastic, resistant structure does not let the anhydride out, causing the dough to grow.
The amount of water absorbed by the flour depends on several factors including grain size, protein content and flour and environment humidity. The hydratation percentage is usually 60%, this reaches 70% in stronger flours with high protein content. The water added must never be enough to remain free, even partly. From its quantity you get dough yield: Yield= dough weight*100/flour weight, effective Yield= Yield (100-flour humidity)/(100-%water into the dough).
Adding salt, 2% of the flour, improves dough resistance, the capacity to restrain gas and bread volume. An excessive amount makes the dough too consistent and hard. Even the addition of fats, mono and diglicerides, improves dough characteristics by combining with proteins.
During mixing, oxidation reactions also occur. These processes are favoured by water, temperature and pH values, and give greater resistance to the glutenic mesh.
Dough temperature must be suitable for survival of the micro-organisms, an average value of 23°C (from 21° to 27°C). Said value depends on the temperature of the flour, environment and water. If their sum is 3*23, Twater=69-(Tflour+Tenvironment). It is by regulating water temperature that you determine dough temperature: a 1°C dough variation is got by varying water by 3°C. This calculation must also consider the different capacity of mixing machines to transfer heat to the mixture: fork mixers +2°C; arms mixers +4°/6°C; spiral mixers +9°/10°C.
The dough can be got by mixing all ingredients together directly, direct method, with the so-called Poolish method or with the natural method. Mixing time depends on type of mixer and flour force.
Poolish foresees first mixing 1/3 - 1/4 of the flour with the yeast and a part of the water needed, after initial leavening you add the rest of the flour and water, salt and the other ingredients and do the final mixing. This system favours development of yeasts which act more rapidly: you can use less yeast; your bread will be better and last longer.
The natural method uses sourdough, a mixture of flour and water allowed to ferment. This dough, which has a pH of between 5 and 6, is then mixed adding water and flour. When the dough is ready, you can remove a small piece and let it ferment, thus getting new sourdough for the next time. With these indirect methods, you have longer lasting bread, acidity slows the creation of mould; finer and more regular alveolation, longer leavening and the production of carbon dioxide is slower; strong taste and flavour, creation of volatile and, during baking, aromatic substances; more digestible and assailable because molecules created are simpler.
The direct method permits to use weaker flours, facilitates operations and reduces process times.
Our mixers have a strong steel structure. An ideal work relationship between tool and bowl, developed in perfect size and distance, a precise design to adapt perfectly: regular mixture, constant quality with small or large dough quantities. Excellent dough oxygenation for more tasty bread and better leavening. Regular mixing for a soft, homogeneous mixture.
Rotation speed is the result of long experience: homogeneousness, consistency, low temperature and better hydratation of the mixture.
A fork mixer is preferably used for hard dough, 35% water: it takes longer but the dough holds better, times for the next moulding can be delayed.
An arms mixer is suited to tender dough, 50/70% water: greater dough volume and more oxygenation to leaven faster.
A spiral mixer is suited for normal dough, 60% water,
using weaker flours: it reduces mixing times, but with less aeration and greater heating.
All machines conform to European Directives applicable and are guaranteed 2 years (excluding parts subject to normal wear and tear).
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