Baking consists in a series of physical, chemical and biological changes which complete the bread-making process.
Bread is a product with excellent organoleptic and nutritional qualities.
Temperature and baking time are based on size and type of dough. Indicatively the temperature is between 200° and 270° C, the time can be from 40-50 minutes for 1 Kg breads, 30-40 minutes for those weighting 500 gr. and 20-30 minutes for smaller sizes.
We can say that regulating the baking depends on:
- dough consistency, if tender it needs higher temperatures than a harder dough which would break if dried too fast;
- shape, that is the ratio between surface and inner mass. If that ratio is big, like breadsticks, the temperature must not be too high for a long time;
- weight, with big size the temperature is lower and times get longer.
Baking is through conduction for that part of dough coming into contact with floor or tray, by air convection or irradiation for what remains free. A correct baking is important for product size, its water content, colour, preservation in time, consistency, taste and aroma. This the moment when factors like inner temperature on all product volume, oven temperature and its balance , baking chamber humidity, product volume and weight become important. Baking means water evaporating and many of the substances created during fermentation volatising: alcohols and aromatic elements such as aldehydes, ethers, acids etc. Bread aroma and taste depend on the concentration of these substances in the dough and the glutenic mesh’s capacity to restrain them. When the dough is placed in the oven the water evaporations slows the temperature increase and this favouring the product development. The fermentation stage is completed with the production of carbon dioxide and volume growing and developing. Growth is linked to the concentration of anhydrides and other gases and the capacity to restrain them related to dough elasticity and resistance. Some small cuts on the dough surface help the gases get out and favour alveolation.
The surface elasticity of the dough allows the increase of the heat into the centre, involving the starch gelatinisation, by hydrating the granules and coagulating the gluten.
Around 100 degrees, with an intense evaporation, the crust starts to form and gluten gelatinisation stops, the structure goes from plastic to rigid breaking weak and strong ties. As evaporation decreases the crust forms.
The crust forms and its thickness increase, remaining sugars candy and the Maillard reactions start involving sugars and proteins. All this determines bread colour. In fact, the inner bread temperature does not exceed 100 degrees C, while outer crust temperature is around 120/140 degrees C. Good bread must be uniform, light and fragrant; its upper crust must be uniformly thin and thicker and sounder at the base. The surface must be bright, lighting and golden coloured, inner crumb parts soft and elastic.
Once the product has been put in the oven, the steam condenses on the surface due to the temperature difference between dough (25°/30°C) and oven chamber (200°/270°C) and creates a thin film. This makes the dough softer and stops the carbon dioxide getting out. It enables the dough to develop better giving the bread greater volume.
This water film re-evaporates slowly absorbing heat and this slows down the superficial chemical processes allowing a softer, thinner crust to form.
As Maillard reactions and candying are influenced by humidity, crust colour is based on steam quantity.
The steam’s action on the crust affects how thick, crispy and crumbly it is and its colour.
A considerable amount of instant steam is needed to bake the crust perfectly. This speeds the baking, slows down crust formation and exalts some features such as thinness, glossiness and golden colour.
Amount and speed at which steam is produced eliminate problems of hydration, bubbles forming and cracking.
Our ovens guarantee uniform and excellent distribution of heat and extraordinary stability after the product has been put in the oven. This means stable and homogeneous baking giving any type of bread volume, softness, fragrance and making it nice to look at.
Steam production and distribution is excellent in all the oven, even with continuous work cycles: instant, saturated steam enveloping the bread.
With these advantageous features the dough rises better during the baking with bread well developed; the dough browns progressively and uniformly, giving you inviting bread with a uniform and glossy crust. A generous crust maintaining flavour and fragrance, making the bread conservation longer and better.
Rotating convection rack ovens with forced air circulation: homogeneous and regular baking, the bread grows more. Flexible baking and ease of use for shorter baking times.
Electric deck ovens, static or modular: baking on deck with separate temperature for each chamber, regulation elasticity, reactivity and fast recovery. Used on all those premises where it’s not easy and practical to install a chimney.
Cyclo-thermic ovens with canalized hot air circulation under pressure: reactivity and flexible used with stable temperature and an excellent baking thrust.
Static steam pipe deck ovens: exceptionally stable and homogeneous baking which spreads gently, it gives developing to the product, its fragrance and softness. Particularly suited for baking large-sized bread, highly stable and heat efficient oven.
All machines conform to European Directives applicable and are guaranteed 2 years (excluding parts subject to normal wear and tear).
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